Big debates about federal education policy do not happen only on Capitol Hill. Academics and wonks have had some major conversations over the decades. Starting in the early 1980s, debates over disappointing educational achievement and what if anything the federal government could do (beyond providing still more resources) erupted. Below are four journals that had symposia on this meaty question. Authors included the heavies of the day, like Carl Kaestle, Diane Ravitch, Michael Kirst, and more. By no means is this list comprehensive—these just happen to be volumes that I came across during my research and that struck me as particularly smart and influential.